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The Week in Women's Football: Man City mega spending; why everyone heading to Tanzania; UCL draw

This week, we review the recently released FIFA Global Transfer Report 2022, which includes significant data on the transfer market for women's club football.

We also explore one factor from the report in more detail, that clubs in Tanzania topped all clubs with the highest individual transfers in 2022, driven by a number of top players moving from Kenya for economic and visibility reasons. We also have a brief overview of the 2022-23 UEFA Women's Champions League Quarterfinals later this month.

FIFA Global Transfer Report 2022—Significant Women's Football Findings

The recently issued FIFA Global Transfer Report 2022 includes 18 of the 75 pages devoted to portraying and discussing significant data and findings on women's football transfers in 2022 (See: FIFA-Global-Transfer-Report-2022.pdf).

FIFA has, over the past two years, issued a phenomenal report (with Deloitte Consulting) entitled Women's Football Benchmarking Report (See: The Week in Women's Football: FIFA report shows impressive growth across leagues; Palmeiras win Copa Libertadores - Tribal Football). This new 2022 edition of an annual report on international transfers, with a strong analysis of the women's game, is quite stellar as well and important for tracking the always rapid changes that we see in women's football.

The FIFA transfer report details:

"Year after year, the international transfer market in women's professional football has been setting new records. 2022 was no exception, with a new high of 119 associations around the globe involved in 1,555 international transfers and 500 clubs involved—more than ever before and 19.3% higher than the previous record set in 2021 (1,303 transfers and 410 clubs in 2021, respectively)" (Page 32).

"With a share of 85.0%, out-of-contract transfers were once again by far the most common type of transfer in 2022. However, permanent transfers with a transfer agreement between the two clubs have been becoming more and more prevalent in recent years, increasing from 3.5% in 2018 to 7.3% in 2022" (Page 34).

We are also seeing a change in the number of clubs being active in the transfer market as FIFA reported 114 total transfers in 2022, along with 77 loans, compared with 67 transfers and 56 loans in 2021. Budgets are increasing for women's clubs so that they don't have to wait to add a player that they want until they are out of contract. This increase in activity will drive longer term contracts, as the majority of players are still on one year/one season agreements, which adds to the instability of the profession. In total, 138 clubs globally were involved in transfers in 2022, up from 84 in 2021 (Page 36).

One good sign is that the Report says that there has been an increase in the length of contracts, though one-year contracts still dominate, but we do expect this percentage to grow quite quickly over the next Women's World Cup cycle (2023-2027):

"On average, players who transferred internationally in 2022 received a contract with a duration of 14.0 months. There was substantial variation between these contracts, however. While more than half of all contracts were for one year or less, 2022 also saw the highest-ever share of contracts with a duration of more than two years (15.8%) (Page 38)."

Other findings included:

"Some 41.8% of the 1,322 players who transferred out of contract did not have a previous professional football contract at all, i.e., they were playing as amateurs for their previous clubs. An almost equal share, 40.5%, joined a new club abroad after the expiry of their previous contract. In 16.9% of all out-of-contract transfers, the player and her previous club mutually agreed to terminate the contract. (Page 34)."

"Spending on international transfer fees in women's professional football also continued its impressive growth in 2022. The annual outlay for transfer fees in 2022 was USD 3.3 million, a new record and 62.0% above the level of 2021. The number of clubs involved at both ends of transfers with fees continued to grow in 2022: 73 clubs recorded receipts from transfer fees and 65 clubs spent money on transfer fees for incoming transfers [compared with 41 clubs in 2021], an increase of 69.8% and 58.5% respectively (Page 35)." The 3.3 million spend in 2022 represents more than 2020 and 2021 combined ($3.2 million),

The five biggest women's football transfers of 2022: "accounted for more than one third of the total spending in 2022." All five moves were within Europe:

Note:Manchester City of the WSL was involved in the top three highest transfer fees in 2022, two as a buyer and one as a seller.

Note: Henna Bennison's transfer fee from FC Rosengard in Sweden to Everton of the WSL in England was the costliest transfer in 2021, at around US$200,000.

In terms of the country of source for transfers:

"Despite a considerable decline compared to 2021 (-28.4%), in 2022 for the fifth

year in a row, players from the USA were still number one in the list of the top ten nationalities in terms of the number of transfers. Their 164 transfers represented more than 10% of all international transfers in 2022. In total, players representing 119 different nationalities moved internationally as professional football players in 2022—an increase of 6.3% compared to the previous year and more than ever before (Page 39)."

Figure 48. Nationalities in the top ten by number of transfers (global rank) and % change since 2021 (Page 39).

Number Rank % change

British 64 (4) +33.3%

French 39 (9) +95%

U.S. 164 (1) -28.4%

Ghanian 38 (10) +90%

Colombian 64 (4) +100%

Brazilian 88 (2) +27.5%

German 40 (7) +37.9%

Ukrainian 80 (3) +300%

Nigerian 53 (6) +29.3%

Australian 40 (7) +2.6%

Looking at the transfers within and outside of the six Confederations:

"Clubs from UEFA member associations were once again the most active in terms of engaging and releasing players in international transfers in 2022. In fact, close to half of all transfers (47.9%) were from one European club to another, with three-quarters of transfers overall including at least one European club and only 23.3% of all transfers had no European involvement at all" (Page 41).

Figure 50 Transfers In Transfers Out Spending Receipts (from Transfers)—(Page 41).

CONCACAF 112 145 0.6 Million 0.3 Million

UEFA 1,004 914 2.6 M 2.7 M

AFC 136 93 N/A N/A

CONMEBOL 147 177 N/A N/A

CAF 151 221 0 0.1 M

OFC 5 5 N/A N/A

Figure 51: Transfer streams within and between confederations (2022) Engaging confederation (banner) Releasing confederation (stub)—(Page 42)

For Transfers by Football Associations:

"With 118 incoming and 95 outgoing transfers, Spanish clubs completed the highest number of transfers in both categories in 2022. The top ten associations for incoming and outgoing transfers were predominantly European, but associations from CONCACAF, CONMEBOL, the AFC and CAF also featured. In fact, players moving from Kenya to a new club in Tanzania represented the largest transfer stream between any two associations as there were 21 such moves in 2022 [see more below]. This is actually the first time that any African association has appeared among the top transfer streams, let alone on both sides of the stream" (Page 43).

We will look at this phenomenon between Kenya and Tanzania in more detail below.

Figure 52: Top associations by number of incoming and outgoing transfers (2022)—(Page 43)

Incoming transfers # (global rank) Outgoing transfers # (global rank)

England 74 (3) 67 (3)

Sweden 85 (2) 66 (4)

France 70 (4) 65 (6)

Germany 52 (9) 66 (4)

Ukraine 55 (8) 26 (20)

USA 65 (5) 86 (2)

Portugal 60 (6) 38 (10)

Italy 38 (16) 53 (7)

Spain 118 (1) 95 (1)

Colombia 47 (11) 45 (9)

Brazil 36 (20) 50 (8)

Tanzania 58 (7) 5 (62)

Australia 51 (10) 36 (11)

Figure 53 Top 10 Country Transfer Steams—(Page 44)

From # of Transfers To

Kenya 22 Tanzania

USA 17 Australia

Germany 15 Switzerland

Poland 15 Ukraine

Brazil 14 Portugal

Colombia 13 Ecuador

Sweden 13 England

USA 12 France

England 11 USA

Spain 10 Mexico

The Report is seeing an increase in transfers with fees on the women's football side:

"The number of clubs completing transfers with transfer fees is continuing to grow, and for the first time ever, the mark of 100 clubs was surpassed with a total of 115 clubs in 2022" (Page 45)

As in the men's game, most of these clubs at 386 (77.2%) only engaged players from abroad, whereas 86 clubs (17.2%) both engaged and released players internationally and the remaining 28 (5.6%) only released players (Pages 45-46). Other interesting findings included:

"Most clubs typically engaged no more than five players in 2022, and only 76 of the 472 engaging clubs (16.1%) had six or more players join their squads, with the most active club engaging 19 players from abroad [see Figure 57 below]. A total of 65 engaging clubs spent money on transfer fees. For 46.2% of these clubs, their total expenditure on transfer fees ranged from USD 10,000 to USD 100,000, and just nine clubs spent more than that but never more than USD 500,000. On the releasing side, 73 clubs received transfer fees for outgoing transfers that were mostly below USD 100,000 (84.9%)" (Page 46).

Figure 56: Number of clubs by their number of incoming and outgoing transfers (2022)—(Page 46).

Clubs by number of incoming and outgoing transfers

# Incoming # Outgoing

1 transfer 131 69

2-5 transfers 265 44

6-10 transfers 68 1

>10 transfers 8 0

Figure 57: Top 10 clubs by number of incoming transfers (2022)—(Page 47)

Incoming Transfers

Fountain Gate Academy of Tanzania 19

Young Africans Sports Club of Tanzania 16

BIIK Kazygurt of Kazakhstan 16

KF Vllaznia of Albania 14

Santa Teresa of Spain 13

Glasgow City of Scotland 12

1 FFC Turbine Potsdam 71 of Germany 11

Kryvbas Kryvyi RIG of Ukraine 11

Angel City of USA 10

BK Hacken FF of Sweden 10


  • Angel City FC was a NWSL expansion franchise in 2022.
  • 2022 was the first year that BK Hacken FF of Sweden took over the Damallsvenskan franchise from previous owners Kopparbergs/Goteborg FC, which resulted in a large number of player turnover.

Figure 58 Top 10 clubs by number of outgoing transfers (2022)—(Page 47)

Independente Santa Fe of Colombia 14

Minsk of Belarus 12

Girondins de Bordeaux of France 11

FC Hayasa of Armenia 11

Racing Louisville FC of U.S. 11

1 FFC Turbine Potsdam 71

of Germany 10

Apollon Ladies of Cyprus 9

Kristianstads DFF of Sweden 9

OL Reign of U.S. 9

BK Hacken FF of Sweden 8


  • OL Reign of Seattle in the NWSL was tied for seventh on outgoing transfers in 2022 with 9, whereas in 2021 they were second on incoming transfers with 18, but had a head coaching change that year.
  • Racing Louisville was an expansion side in 2021 and has been struggling on the field, so they have had a lot of player turnover.

Similar to 2021, 88.7 percent of players transferred were in either the 18-to-23 or 24-to-29 age bracket and the transfer fees with those age buckets accounted for $2.9 million of the total $3.3 million in fees for the year (Page 37).

The Appendix (Pages 61-64) provides the number of incoming and outgoing transfers and number of clubs involved, for each of the 119 countries in the report.

Figure 68: Number of incoming and outgoing transfers and clubs involved by association, women's professional football (2022)—(Page 61-63)

Association Incoming Outgoing Engaging Releasing

transfers transfers clubs clubs

Albania (UEFA) 15 2 2 0

Algeria (CAF) 0 1 0 0

Argentina (CONMEBOL) 13 23 8 3

Armenia (UEFA) 2 13 1 0

Australia (AFC) 51 36 14 3

Austria (UEFA) 11 9 3 0

Belarus (UEFA) 14 20 5 1

Belgium (UEFA) 9 8 4 0

Benin (CAF) 5 5 5 1

Bolivia (CONMEBOL) 0 2 0 0

Bosnia & Herzegovina (UEFA) 0 1 0 0

Botswana (CAF) 1 0 1 0

Brazil (CONMEBOL) 36 50 15 3

Bulgaria (UEFA) 0 3 0 0

Burkina Faso (CAF) 1 3 1 0

Burundi (CAF) 0 7 0 0

Cameroon (CAF) 4 9 2 0

Canada (CONCACAF) 0 19 0 0

Cape Verde Islands (CAF) 0 1 0 0

Chile (CONMEBOL) 15 6 5 0

China PR (AFC) 6 16 4 3

Chinese Taipei (AFC) 3 1 1 0

Colombia (CONMEBOL) 47 45 15 0

Congo (CAF) 0 4 0 0

Congo DR (CAF) 0 8 0 1

Costa Rica (CONCACAF) 0 7 0 0

Côte d'Ivoire (CAF) 1 8 1 0

Croatia (UEFA) 2 5 1 0

Cyprus (UEFA) 23 20 6 1

Czech Republic (UEFA) 10 8 3 0

Denmark (UEFA) 23 29 8 4

Dominican Republic (CONCACAF) 1 0 1 0

Ecuador (CONMEBOL) 28 6 10 0

Egypt (CAF) 1 3 1 0

El Salvador (CONCACAF) 0 1 0 0

England (UEFA) 74 67 21 10

Equatorial Guinea (CAF) 0 6 0 0

Faroe Islands (UEFA) 3 0 2 0

Finland (UEFA) 8 15 2 2

France (UEFA) 70 65 20 4

Gabon (CAF) 0 6 0 0

Gambia (CAF) 0 2 0 0

Georgia (UEFA) 0 3 0 0

Germany (UEFA) 52 66 16 6

Ghana (CAF) 3 31 1 4

Greece (UEFA) 0 4 0 0

Guatemala (CONCACAF) 3 2 2 0

Guinea (CAF) 0 4 0 0

Guinea-Bissau (CAF) 0 2 0 0

Haiti (CONCACAF) 0 3 0 0

Hungary (UEFA) 16 13 6 1

Iceland (UEFA) 45 36 16 3

India (AFC) 4 7 2 0

Iran (AFC) 3 0 2 0

Israel (UEFA) 38 22 10 0

Italy (UEFA) 38 53 10 2

Japan (AFC) 7 16 4 2

Jordan (AFC) 8 3 4 0

Kazakhstan (UEFA) 28 15 3 1

Kenya (CAF) 1 28 1 1

Korea Republic (AFC) 5 3 4 0

Kosovo (UEFA) 4 4 1 1

Kyrgyz Republic (AFC) 0 2 0 0

Latvia (UEFA) 0 1 0 0

Lebanon (AFC) 0 2 0 0

Liberia (CAF) 13 2 4 1

Lithuania (UEFA) 11 12 2 0

Luxembourg (UEFA) 0 1 0 0

Malawi (CAF) 0 3 0 2

Malta (UEFA) 8 0 2 0

Mexico (CONCACAF) 43 12 17 2

Montenegro (UEFA) 0 2 0 0

Morocco (CAF) 35 6 19 1

Nepal (AFC) 0 1 0 0

Netherlands (UEFA) 17 14 8 3

New Zealand (OFC) 5 5 1 0

Nicaragua (CONCACAF) 0 1 0 0

Niger (CAF) 2 1 1 0

Nigeria (CAF) 21 34 4 4

Northern Ireland (UEFA) 0 3 0 1

Norway (UEFA) 38 36 13 5

Panama (CONCACAF) 0 11 0 1

Paraguay (CONMEBOL) 0 17 0 0

Peru (CONMEBOL) 0 7 0 0

Poland (UEFA) 13 27 7 0

Portugal (UEFA) 60 38 13 1

Puerto Rico (CONCACAF) 0 3 0 0

Republic of Ireland (UEFA) 0 7 0 0

Republic of North Macedonia (UEFA) 5 0 3 0

Romania (UEFA) 9 15 5 1

Russia (UEFA) 16 13 7 1

Rwanda (CAF) 1 1 1 0

Saudi Arabia (AFC) 37 0 10 0

Scotland (UEFA) 41 16 5 1

Senegal (CAF) 0 3 0 0

Serbia (UEFA) 0 10 0 0

Sierra Leone (CAF) 0 3 0 0

Slovakia (UEFA) 0 4 0 0

Slovenia (UEFA) 1 4 1 0

South Africa (CAF) 0 5 0 0

Spain (UEFA) 118 95 35 2

Sudan (CAF) 0 1 0 0

Sweden (UEFA) 85 66 25 10

Switzerland (UEFA) 42 12 9 2

Tanzania (CAF) 58 5 5 1

Thailand (AFC) 0 4 0 1

Togo (CAF) 0 2 0 0

Tunisia (CAF) 0 10 0 0

Türkiye (UEFA) 0 31 0 0

Uganda (CAF) 0 5 0 2

Ukraine (UEFA) 55 26 11 2

United Arab Emirates (AFC) 0 1 0 0

Uruguay (CONMEBOL) 0 7 0 0

USA (CONCACAF) 65 86 12 10

Uzbekistan (AFC) 12 0 3 0

Venezuela (CONMEBOL) 8 14 3 0

Vietnam (AFC) 0 1 0 0

Zambia (CAF) 4 5 2 1

Zimbabwe (CAF) 0 7 0 2

Note: This table includes data for 119 countries. As a reference, 187 nations were ranked in the latest FIFA women's national team rankings as of December 9, 2022.

This FIFA report is important for the game in general, but specifically for women, it allows us to track the growth and the flow of international transfers as more money is flowing into women's clubs and clubs become more active in acquiring players currently under contracts with other clubs, which should drive more longer-term deals and fewer of the one-and-done contracts, where players are always concerned with finding a new club for the next season. Transfers are an important benchmark for us to track, particularly as the women's game has made rapid gains on the men's game in other areas (such as salaries and benefits, the number of women's franchises, attendances, etc.), these advances and changes in the transfer market will take place very quickly.

Tanzania's Women's League is a growing destination for Kenyan footballers

Last month, Ruth Arege of the Nation Media Group in Nairobi, Kenya explained that 31 Kenyan women footballers have left the Kenya Women's Premier League for other leagues, most bound for Tanzania, where the clubs are better branded and marketed and provide better training and living conditions. We saw this phenomenon above in the FIFA Global Transfer Report 2022, where Kenyan to Tanzanian transfers represent the current number one flow of players internationally between two countries.

According to veteran Kenyan coach Alex Almirah, who is the technical director of Tanzanian league side Fountain Gate Princess and coached in the club game at home and with the Harambee Starlets's WNT for Kenya, huge sign-on fees, better contracts and salaries, and the fact that Tanzanian league matches are screened live on TV are some of the reasons that so many Kenyan female footballers have moved to the Tanzanian league.

Alumirah explained: "Most of the players move to Tanzania where they feel valued and well-taken care of. Players join clubs that pay handsomely. They prefer places where salaries are timely and consistent…. Some teams in the Tanzanian women's league pay their players better than most Football Kenya Federation Premier League teams. Teams give out huge sign-on fees that some of the players have never received since they started playing football."

Alumirah, who won the KWPL title with Vihiga Queens in 2019 and went on to lift the CECAFA [Council for East and Central African Football Associations] Regional Club Championship title with the club in 2021, added: "Fountain Gate Princess' [reigning league champions], Yanga's and Simba's [in the Tanzania] Serengeti Lite Women Premier League (SLWPL) matches are all broadcast live on TV. Players prefer this because it makes it easier for them to generate videos for scouts in the European market. At the end of the day, it's all about packaging themselves for greener pastures."

Simba Queens team manager Selman Makanya said: "We have signed players across East Africa that make the league very competitive. We have sponsors who are always on standby to support us. They pump money directly to the federation and to the clubs. In turn, the clubs are transparent and accountable to partners…In Tanzania, female footballers are given equal support as men; we try to create a friendly environment for them. We honour their contracts by paying them on time. This sends a strong message back to their countries, which attracts more players to our country."

The six-year-old SLWPL is becoming a leading lite for women's leagues in East Africa. Kenyan Women's Premier League teams don't typically pay salaries. Elizabeth Katungwa, who plays for Rangers FC in India, worries about the recent exodus of players abroad: "I can't blame players for ditching the local league. Playing professional football is a good achievement; this portrays the talent that Kenya has. As we all carry the national flag high in other countries, it encourages more players to work extra hard locally…I have grown career-wise. Football is very competitive abroad, and it's paying. I depend on football for a living here, unlike in Kenya where players are not paid. The Football Kenya Federation should be worried that our football is sinking so low. The Kenyan league is losing quality players to foreign leagues and with time, Kenyan club football will lose its taste."

Katungwa helped Sethu FC to second place in the 2021/22 Indian women premier league with 30 points from 11 matches, scoring nine goals with five assists. Gokulam Kerala won the league with 33 points. She then joined Royal Rangers in New Delhi on a two-year contract. She previously played for Dalhem IF in Sweden in the lower tiers. She has been happy in India but has scouts from clubs in Greece, Turkey and Israel following her.

Harambee Stars striker Elizabeth Katungwa in a past training in Sweden—she now plays professionally in India.

[Photo courtesy of The Standard Sports of India]

Some of the top recent player departures from Kenya to clubs abroad, all of whom play for Kenya's national football team Harambee Starlets, include:

  • Striker Jentrix Shikangwa (formerly of Vihiga Queens and Turkish club Satih Karagumruk and currently at Tanzanian club Simba Queens)
  • Striker Topister Situma (formerly of Vihiga Queens, now at Simba Queens)
  • Midfielder Cynthia Shilwatso (formerly of Vihiga Queens and Spanish club Logrono and currently at Fountain Gate Princess in Tanzania)
  • Midfielder Corazone Aquino (formerly of Gaspo Women and currently at Simba Queens)
  • Defender Esther Amakobe (Wadadia Women, now at Fountain Gate Princess)
  • Defender Ruth Ingotsi (Vihiga Queens and then at Cyprus side Lacatamia and currently at Simba Queens).

Starlets' duo Dorcas Shikobe (formerly of Oserian FC) and attacking midfielder Faith Ivy (formerly of Wadadia FC) also joined Indian Women Premier League team SETHU FC for an undisclosed period of time.

Kenyan young star prospect Violet Nanjala also joined Municipal de Laayoune Women in Morocco on a two-year deal from Trans Nzoia Falcons. She was the league's top scorer with 11 goals in 11 league games to start the season. Municipal is in third place with a 10-6-1 (W-T-L) record for 36 points, well behind traditional powerhouse FAR Rabat (16-1-0—49 points) and only one point behind second place Sporting Casablanca (11-4-2—37 points).

The Federation of Kenyan Football needs to become more organized with their women's league and national teams program—they withdrew from a second-round tie against Uganda in last year's Women's African Cup of Nation's qualifiers because their Federation was suspended by FIFA (from February to November of 2022), which gave Uganda a free pass to the AFC Finals in Morocco, where they drew with Burkina Faso 2-2 in their group to finish with 1 point in Group A, which also included Morocco and Senegal. After beating South Sudan 15-1 on aggregate in the previous round, Alex Almirah was named as the coach for the Harambee Starlets women's national team but by the previous administration and thus was not able to lead the team against Uganda because of the FIFA suspension.

UEFA WCL Quarterfinal Draw and Path to the Final

UEFA Women's Champions League holders Lyon will face Chelsea in the quarter-finals with the draw also matching Paris Saint-Germain with Wolfsburg, Roma against Barcelona and Bayern München versus Arsenal. The draw has also opened up a potential semi-final meeting between Lyon and Barcelona, who faced off in the 2019 and 2022 finals.

Women's Champions League knockout draw:


First legs:
Tuesday 21 March
Bayern München vs. Arsenal
Roma vs. Barcelona
Wednesday 22 March
Lyon vs. Chelsea
Paris Saint-Germain vs. Wolfsburg

Second legs:
Wednesday 29 March
Barcelona vs. Roma
Arsenal vs. Bayern München
Thursday 30 March
Wolfsburg vs. Paris Saint-Germain
Chelsea vs. Lyon

From England, Chelsea (31 points) and Arsenal (26 points) are currently in third and fourth place in the WSL respectively, behind leaders Manchester United (35 points) and Manchester City (32 points), but who have both played 14 games to only 12 each for Chelsea and Arsenal.

The two German sides, Wolfsburg (36 points) and Bayern Munich (34 points), are first and second in the Frauen-Bundesliga, with both sides having played 13 games and who have built a significant gap over third placed Eintracht Frankfurt (29 points). Wolfsburg won the first match between the sides in late October (2-1) in Wolfsburg and will play again on March 25 in Munich is a likely title decider match.

From France. Olympique Lyon (40 points) and Paris St. Germain (39 points) are neck-to-neck in the race for the title after 15 games, with Racing FC third on 30 points. PSG won the first league game between the two sides in Lyon on December 11 (1-0) on a late goal by Franch international Kaddiatou Diani (27), who is in her sixth season at PSG after seven seasons at Juvisy in Viry-Chatillon, a southern suburb of Paris. Their next match in the penultimate round of the season on May 20 in Paris is likely to be a championship race decider.

Roma, the surprise side in the WCL this season, has 48 points after 18 games, 8 points ahead of second place Juventus, as the league now splits into a 5 team Championship Round and 5 team Relegation Round.

In Spain, Barcelona is perfect this season after 20 games with 60 points, five points ahead of second place Real Madrid and 10 ahead of third place Levante.

Semi-finals (22/23 & 29/30 April)

1: Paris / Wolfsburg vs. Bayern / Arsenal
2: Lyon / Chelsea vs. Roma / Barcelona

Final (3 June, Eindhoven)

Winner semi-final 2 vs. Winner semi-final 1

Tim Grainey is a contributor to Tribal Football. His latest book Beyond Bend it Like Beckham is on the global game of women's football. Get your copy today.

Follow Tim on Twitter: @TimGrainey

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