Adams has also had loan spells at Brentford and Northampton but is yet to make a first-team appearance for the Black Cats.
Sky Blues boss Mark Robins said: "We're delighted to have him. He's a young player who's keen to do well and keen to make his mark.
"Sunderland have helped us out massively in the way they have pushed this through so we have to thank them for that because there was a lot of interest in him but it's a big step for him and hopefully he can fulfil his potential over the period we have him.
"He'll get forward for us, it gives us another option at left-back but he's played at left wing as well so there is that option to move him up one. He's a solid youngster and he's been working under Kevin Ball at Sunderland for quite a while and Kevin is a hard task master so I'm looking forward to working with him."