He last played for his country in September 2011, when a groin injury suffered against Madagascar kept him out for four months.
Anichebe told his club's website: "I have always been proud to represent my country but it is becoming more and more evident that with the injuries I have had over the last two years or so, I have to manage my body accordingly.
"That's why I feel the best thing for me at the moment is to concentrate on club football.
"Without club football there is no international football and everyone at Everton was with me every step of the way during my injuries and rehabilitation and so I owe it to the club to manage myself correctly.
"I didn't feel that the Nigerian Football Federation was there for me the in the same manner, which was especially disappointing given that I got the injury representing my country.
"But I don't blame anyone for this nor do I have any issues with anybody from the NFF or Stephen Keshi our coach."