Drogba said he passed up the opportunity as he instead wants to have a major influence on Ivorian football.
He said: "Chelsea offered me the chance to return to them as a coach.
"But being a coach does not interest me. I am a leader, and my vision is bigger than just the simple role of being a coach.
"A coach has an impact on a club - but I want to have an impact on an entire nation.
"I could have stayed at Chelsea, but I think the real challenge is here.
"I want us to re-think football, with a nationwide vision, so we can develop the game here.
"The Ivory Coast has a glorious footballing past.
"The funds are in place, together with talent and potential, but they are under-exploited.
"There are some very competent people in the Ivory Coast who can work with me on this project."