The Potters had appointed Rowett and given him a good transfer budget in the hopes of challenging for promotion.
But the team are struggling to remain in the Championship, which was not the intended target at the start of the season. Rowett and his staff are sacked immediately.
Per a Stoke statement: "Rory Delap, Kevin Russell and Andy Quy will take charge of first-team affairs" until a permanent boss is appointed.
Rowett only lasted in the job for eight months.