The 61-year-old is tasked with preserving the Football League status of a side sitting at the foot of the fourth tier, six points adrift of safety and with a minus 24 goal difference.
Moore, who was sacked by Tranmere in April of this year for breaching FA betting rules, was in the stands at Burton on Saturday to watch Pools slump to a 4-0 defeat.
He replaces Paul Murray who was sacked in the wake of a shock 2-1 FA Cup defeat at home to minnows Blyth Spartans. Murray failed to win a league match in his 45 days in charge at Victoria Park.
Moore is best known for leading Rotherham from the fourth tier to the Championship in successive seasons between 1999 and 2001 and has also managed Oldham and Tranmere in the Football League.
Pools chairman Peter Harris told the club's official website, hartlepoolunited.co.uk: "We're really pleased Ronnie will be coming in as manager.
"We believe having Ronnie in charge will give the club the best possible chance of remaining in the Football League and we will provide him with all the support he needs to help him achieve that.
"He is a very experienced manager which is something we felt was needed but he's also a tough character who is very much prepared for the battle ahead."