Real won 3-1 at the Nou Camp with a Sergio Ramos penalty, awarded via VAR, the flashpoint.
"This shirt and badge deserve to be fought for and valued in every game," Courtois said after the match.
"Today we did it because we came from two difficult and bad games. Today we put in a lot of desire and ran a lot.
"It was not an easy week. In the game against Cadiz we did not start well and it was difficult. We did not do our best.
"And against Shakhtar we were good until we conceded the goals. Then in the second half we put in our will and courage. Today we played a good match."