Henderson took over as Reds skipper when Gerrard ended his 26-year association with the club to move to LA Galaxy in 2015.
Writing on Instagram, Rangers boss Gerrard told Henderson: "Couldn't have passed it to a better person. Proud of you, mate."
Liverpool's Premier League title glory adds to the Champions League, Super Cup and Club World Cup won by Henderson since Gerrard's departure.
Henderson deputised for Gerrard on several occasions during the four years the pair spent as team-mates, starting as captain for the first time during Gerrard's final season at the club.