The 56-year-old has signed a two-year deal at Loftus Road.
"QPR have a long-term outlook and I am excited about the challenge that lies ahead," he told the club website.
"They have a solid plan and know what they want."
QPR director of football Les Ferdinand said Warburton was a "fantastic appointment" for the west London club.
"We spoke with a number of excellent candidates for the position, and Mark ticked all the boxes for us," added Ferdinand.
"He loves working with younger players and developing them, and has a great understanding of the game.
"Mark is determined to be a success and we will be giving him our full support to achieve that."