Manchester City's Kevin de Bruyne and Manchester United's Cristiano Ronaldo join a trio of Liverpool players among nominations for the Professional Footballers' Association men's players' player of the year award.
Tottenham's Harry Kane is also included but the league's joint top scorer Son Heung-min has not been nominated.
The winner will be revealed on 9 June.
Salah, the league's joint top scorer along with Spurs' Son, scored 23 times and he also ended the campaign with 13 assists, which saw him secure the Premier League's playmaker award.
Mane was Liverpool's second highest scorer with 16.
Netherlands captain Van Dijk helped the Reds concede only 26 goals in 38 league games, the joint least with champions City.
Kane was last season's Golden Boot winner, sharing the award with Salah, and it comes as a surprise that the England skipper, who scored 17 goals this year, makes the shortlist rather than Spurs' top scorer Son.
Six-time Ballon d'Or winner Ronaldo is perhaps another unexpected name in the nominations after Manchester United finished sixth, 13 points off Champions League qualification.
However, bar Son and Salah, Ronaldo was the Premier League's top scorer with 18.
PFA Young Player Award
City's Phil Foden is among six players nominated for the Professional Footballers' Association men's young player of the year award.
Meanwhile, Saka's team-mate Emile Smith Rowe, who won his first England caps this season, was second on the Gunners' league goalscoring list with 10.
Chelsea defender James completes a family double with his nomination - as sister is on the women's young player shortlist.
He scored five goals and provided nine assists this season, while offering defensive solidity in a side who conceded fewer goals in this season's Premier League than every other side bar Manchester City and Liverpool.