The 33-year-old Crystal Palace defender admitted he chose to call time on his 12-year international career before Norway launch their Euro 2016 qualification bid.
"For many years I have had a very high load on my body, and now it feels essential to make this decision," said Hangeland.
"It is a heavy decision, it is never a good time for this type of decision but before the start of a new national qualification and with a new club, I am confident that it is the right decision.
"I'm very humble and proud to have represented Norway on so many occasions.
"Playing for Norway has given me some of my best experiences on the football field."
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