The Manchester United defender was booed by his own fans as England ran out 3-0 winners over Ivory Coast.
Taking to Instagram after the game, Henderson was furious about the incident and described Maguire as a "colossus" for England.
He wrote: "I can't get my head around what happened at Wembley tonight.
"Harry Maguire has been a colossus for England. Without him, the progress made at the last two tournaments would not have been possible.
"To be booed at his home stadium, for no reason? What have we become?
"What happened tonight was just wrong. As someone who wants to win with England I feel fortunate to share a dressing room with him. We all feel the same!"
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