The 36-year-old striker, who recently left Manchester United to join the LA Galaxy, had hinted that he might resume his 116-cap career with Sweden, having retired from international duty two years ago.
But in a statement published on the Swedish team's official Instagram page on Thursday, national selectors said: "A final message: Zlatan will not play at the World Cup.
"The men's national team's greatest scorer of all time has not returned and will not play."
National team manager Lars Richt said on svenskfotboll.se: "I talked to Zlatan on Tuesday. He said that he has not changed his mind about the national team - it is a no."