France coach Didier Deschamps wanted to call-up Fofana to the French senior side as a replacement for the injured Raphael Varane - but opted instead for Liverpool's Ibrahima Konate as their next match is on the same day as the Leicester defender's wedding.
Fofana is due to get married on Friday, when France are scheduled to play Austria in the Nations League in Vienna.
Manchester United centre-back Varane has been ruled out of the game, and Monday's match against Croatia in Split, after limping out of the defeat to Denmark on Friday night with a hamstring problem.
L'Equipe says Deschamps had hoped to select Fofana, who played for the under-21s in a 2-0 win over Serbia last Thursday, following Varane's withdrawal from the squad.
But it was decided to instead select Liverpool defender Konate - who was asked to end his holiday early - to allow Fofana time off for his wedding.