The 22-year-old spent the first half of the campaign on loan at Birmingham City, making 16 appearances.
Sanderson came through the youth system at Molineux, but has yet to turn out for the first team.
"I studied QPR, their style of play and how the gaffer likes to play, and it suits me so it just made absolute sense to come here," he said.
"We need to have competition for places and he certainly brings that because he has the quality to play anywhere across the back three," said QPR boss Mark Warburton.
"He is solid, quick, a good athlete and comfortable on the ball, so he was an immediate target for us."
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