The 19-year-old spent last season on loan with Coventry City, where he made 40 appearances for the Sky Blues.
Sterling was part of the England Under-19 side that won the European Championships in 2017.
"Obviously I saw what Reece James did here last season, so I think Wigan is the right place for me to come and show off my qualities," he said.
"The big stadiums and big crowds, they're things I like about the Championship. It's a great opportunity for me to express myself."
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