The 34-year-old joins on a free transfer after being released by the Cherries this summer.
South Africa-born Surman, who has also played for Wolves and Norwich City, has made 453 career appearances.
"I'm a player that wants to get on the ball and keep it moving, and I look to impose my technical ability," Surman told the MK Dons website.
"By the looks of it, I've come to the right place to do that."
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