Broadhead, 21, has made one substitute appearance for Everton's first team in a Europa League tie away at Apollon Limassol in December 2017.
He is the Toffees' current under-23 player of the year, having progressed through the Goodison Park academy.
"He was the one we had in mind as soon as Marcus Harness left," Burton manager Nigel Clough told the club website.
"We have had to wait ,but the most important thing is that we have got him. He has been away with Everton's first team pre-season, which is a very good sign.
"He can also play in a wide position and in training he looked very comfortable. It's an exciting signing for us."
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