Costa struck in the 1-1 draw and raised up a shirt with the name and number of Virginia Torrecilla.
Torrecilla was operated on last month because she had a brain tumour.
She described it as "the most important game of her life" and the male team showed their support for her.
Costa netted in the 39th minute after being fed by Koke, a minute after Iker Muniain had opened the scoring with a neat flick. It was Atletico's 13th league draw of the campaign for them.
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