Henderson, who spent time with Ipswich last season, will remain with the Cherries until January 2 and could be thrown straight into the action against Millwall this weekend.
"We felt we needed to bring in an experienced goalkeeper who has played the level," manager Howe told the Daily Echo.
"He's a good shot-stopper, he's experienced, a good kicker and good coming for crosses so he ticks all the boxes and we are delighted to have brought him in."
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