The Catalans stay two points behind Atletico at the top of the table, with just three games to go before the end of the season.
Ronald Koeman was serving the second match of his touchline ban, leaving his assistant to perform coaching and media duties at the Camp Nou.
"We know we now have to rely on results from other games," Schreuder said post-match.
"We know that it's not in our hands, but it's still possible to win LaLiga.
"We're there - where we wanted to be three months ago.
"We knew it would be a very difficult game [against Atletico], no doubt.
"We had a good chance with Leo [Messi] in the first half, another with [Ousmane] Dembele in the second.
"We had the ball. We knew that Atletico would be very defensive.
"Yes, we had some problems in the first half.
"We could've won today. We had the chances to win."
There was concern over Sergio Busquets, who was taken to hospital for checks after suffering a head injury in the first half.
"I've just spoken to him and he seems fine, but we have to wait and see what the results of the hospital checks say," Schreuder stated.