Diego Simeone's side had to come from behind to win, though, after Uros Racic gave Valencia the lead with a sublime strike from distance which curled away from Jan Oblak's reach.
The hosts weren't behind for long, however, and found their equaliser when Joao Felix prodded in Thomas Lemar's corner to score his first goal in LaLiga Santander since the start of November.
It took until the 54th minute for Atletico to go ahead, as Luis Suarez picked up Joao Felix's pass and coolly slotted past Jaume.
The Uruguayan, on his 34th birthday, went to the top of the Pichichi standings with that goal, drawing level with Youssef En-Nesyri on 12 goals for the campaign.
Substitute Angel Correa had a couple of chances to extend Atletico's advantage. He converted the first from Marcos Llorente's cross in the 76th minute but couldn't beat Jaume from close range in the latter stages.
Simeone's men held on for the victory, their seventh in a row in LaLiga Santander, to move seven points clear of second-placed Real Madrid in the table, and they still with a game in hand.
Valencia, meanwhile, remain in 14th place, just two points above the relegation zone.