The 25-year-old becomes manager Chris Hutchings' first signing since succeeding Paul Jewell at the JJB and joins on a three-year contract.
Bramble joined Newcastle from Ipswich in 2002, making 105 appearances for the Magpies, but was told his contract would not be renewed upon Sam Allardyce's arrival at St James' Park.
Hutchings told Wigan's website: "This is an excellent signing for us. He will add experience to the back four and now we must keep up the chase for further targets.
"Other clubs were very interested and it speaks volumes for us as a club that he has chosen to come here."