Robles will be officially added to the Red Bulls' roster and eligible for selection upon receipt of his International Transfer Certificate.
By taking Robles, New York moves to the bottom of the MLS Allocation Order.
"Luis is a goalkeeper who we have been interested in for the past year and we are excited that he has joined our squad," said New York General Manager and Sporting Director Erik Soler. "We think that he has potential and we are eager to evaluate him in person on a daily basis at our club."
Robles spent the past five seasons in the Germany and was most recently with Karlsruher SC, where he made 28 appearances from 2010-12. The 28-year-old started his stint in Germany with FC Kaiserslautern in 2007 and appeared in 36 games for the club. He was drafted by D.C. United in the fourth round of the 2007 MLS SuperDraft with the 50th overall selection out of the University of Portland, where he attended from 2002-06. Despite being drafted by D.C., Robles did not sign with United.