The United captain earned 56 caps for Serbia and scored two goals.
"After a great deal of thought and with a heavy heart, I have decided the time is right for me to retire from international football," Vidic told ManUtd.com.
"I feel, after 10 years of playing for my country, it is the right time for me to stand aside and allow the younger players to come through.
"I would like to thank all the managers, coaches and players I have played alongside.
"I have always been very proud to play for Serbia and would like to wish them well in future tournaments."