The former Arsenal defender struggled to make Martin Jol's team at the beginning of the season, but he has dislodged Aaron Hughes from the XI of late, starting the last four matches.
"I'm delighted to extend my stay with the club by a further year," Senderos told Fulham's website.
"I've thoroughly enjoyed my time at Fulham so far and I love playing for this club.
"I'm relishing playing first-team football and I'm confident that we can continue our recent good form and end the season strongly. A top-10 finish is certainly achievable."