The 21-year-old will face Rodgers' current club Celtic in the Champions League this week after progressing from Anfield to the Etihad Stadium.
"He was massive for me," Sterling said.
"I try to learn from every manager I work with, and he is a man I definitely learned a lot from.
"He is a fantastic guy. He played me in different positions to help me understand those roles and what it took. He was great."