Campbell, who won 73 caps with England, makes the claim in his autobiography, which is published later this month.
Campbell is quoted by the Mail on Sunday: "I believe that if I was white I would have been England captain for 10 years.
"I don't think it [the situation] will change because they don't want it. It's all right to have a black or mixed race captain of the Under 18s or Under 21s but not for the full national side.
"There is a ceiling and, although no one has ever said it, I believe it's made of glass.
"Michael Owen was made captain ahead of me and I thought, 'What's going on here?' I think the FA didn't want me to have a voice.
"Owen was a fantastic forward but nowhere near being a captain. I've asked myself many times why I wasn't [named captain]. I keep coming up with the same answer. It was the colour of my skin."
Campbell was England captain for three friendly games in 1998 and 2005 but never received the captaincy long term.
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