Samuelsen, 20, is Burton boss Nigel Clough's first January window signing.
He will go straight into the Brewers' squad for Saturday's trip to Fulham, where Clough's men will be chasing a fourth straight Championship away win.
"He plays a variety of forward positions. We nearly got him at the start of last season," said Clough.
"We have kept an eye on him. He had a successful loan spell out at Peterborough in League One. It didn't quite work out for him on loan at Blackburn, but he has got himself fit after an illness in the summer."