The Ivory Coast striker was handed his award in a ceremony in Accra, as he was voted the continent's top player for 2009.
It is the second time in his career the 32-year-old has won the honour, with the previous success coming in 2006.
He helped his country through a convincing World Cup qualifying campaign in 2009, during which he netted five goals as the Ivorians finished unbeaten. Drogba also scored for Chelsea as they won the FA Cup final.
Drogba, who has hit 25 goals this season, is also thought to be a leading candidate for both the Footballer of the Year and PFA Player of the Year awards in England this year.
None of the three candidates travelled to Ghana's capital for the annual Confederation of African Football (CAF) awards, where World Cup-bound Algeria were named Team of the Year.