Guardiola announced on Friday he would be leaving the job.
Captain Puyol posted: "Thank you for everything, Pep. You have showed us the way."
Pique added: "Many thanks Pep for giving us so much. Four years of victories, happiness and above all, football lessons."
Forward Lionel Messi said on Facebook: "I thank Pep from the bottom of my heart for the many things he has given me on a professional as well as a personal level."