The 2007 German champions confirmed the deal on Tuesday after agreeing a one-year deal plus an option for a further 12 months with the veteran keeper.
"We are delighted about signing Jens Lehmann," VfB sporting director Horst Heldt told the club's official website.
"He is an excellent goalkeeper and has huge national and international experience.
"He is exactly the type of player we were looking for and are convinced that he will quickly become an important part of our team."
Lehmann, who had spent five years at Arsenal but lost his place to Manuel Almunia last season, also expressed his delight at the move.
"The talks with the Stuttgart management team were very pleasant from the word go," said the 38-year-old.
"I am looking forward to VfB and the Bundesliga and hope to play my part in a successful season 2008/09."